The "Stanford Cart" and SRI's "Shakey" were the first mobile
robots controlled by computers (room-sized, radio linked).
Both saw with TV cameras. The Cart followed
smudgy white lines seen from a high vantage point in variable
illumination quite reliably using adaptation and prediction methods
far more complex than Elsie's or the Beast's. The use of computers
to control robots can be compared to the advent of multicellular
animals with nervous systems in the Cambrian explosion: both events
blew the lid on behavioral complexity in their respective domains.