Figure from ROBOT, Moravec, Oxford, 1998, Chapter 3: Power and Presence, page 58
Power rating of natural and artificial thinkers

MIPS and megabytes

Entities rated by the computational power and memory of the smallest universal computer needed to mimic their behavior. Note that the scale is logarithmic on both axes: each vertical division represents a thousandfold increase in processing power, and each horizontal division a thousandfold increase in memory size. Universal computers, marked by an *, can imitate other entities at their location in the diagram, but the more specialized entities cannot. A 100-million-MIPS computer may be programmed not only to think like a human, but also to imitate other similarly sized computers. But humans cannot imitate 100-million-MIPS computers--our general-purpose calculation ability is under a millionth of a MIPS. Deep Blue's special-purpose chips process chess moves like a 3-million-MIPS computer, but its general-purpose power is only a thousand MIPS. Most of the noncomputer entities in the diagram can't function in a general-purpose way at all. Universality is an almost magical property, but it has costs. A universal machine may use ten or more times the resources of one specialized for a task. But if the task should change, as it usually does in research, the universal machine can be reprogrammed, while the specialized machine must be replaced.

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