The Stanford Cart

The "Stanford Cart" and SRI's "Shakey" were the first mobile robots controlled by computers (room-sized, radio linked). Both saw with TV cameras. The Cart followed smudgy white lines seen from a high vantage point in variable illumination quite reliably using adaptation and prediction methods far more complex than Elsie's or the Beast's. The use of computers to control robots can be compared to the advent of multicellular animals with nervous systems in the Cambrian explosion: both events blew the lid on behavioral complexity in their respective domains.